One of the last letters he wrote was to the Ensemble performers in preparation for their visit to London. If we adhere to the view expounded above, that a performance text cannot contain performance information, then it would be fair to ask why a distinction needs to be drawn between performance and closet texts: Bei allen Songs handelt es sich um Formen, die an die Volksliedstrophe erinnern: Because for spectators who have no access to the ST the TT is the original, many practitioners urge caution in making radical changes and still labelling the play a translation. A consideration of British theatre in the second half of the twentieth century, especially the perceived turning point which occurred in will illustrate the environment Brecht entered and why mainstream theatre was so receptive to some of his ideas at that time. There was a certain amount of ideological, uninformed, left-wing nonsense talked at the Court about Brecht, but it never cut very deep. Citations indicate the volume and page number.

These examples are not exhaustive, but are an indication of how pervasive this concept is in the field. This was only possible if they could be prevented from identifying or empathising with the char- acters. Farrell wonders what the point is of translating a foreign author if there is nothing left of his work once the TT has remoulded it beyond recognition. For a detailed discussion of this point, see below, 6. The creative process is advocated in theatre translation, albeit to different degrees in different cultures, and thus the translator should be a confident contributor to the performance process, not a slave to linguistic equivalence. Words in a dramatic text are not an end in themselves; they are a kind of scaffolding on which the actor constructs his or her performance. It was a nightmare working on Ui, because I had to prepare this plodding version first, going through the German dictionary, looking up more or less every other word at first, and gradually getting a bit better at it. Dennoch lassen sich einige Eckpunkte festhalten, die aus der didaktischen Zielsetzung Brechts erwachsen.

A literary scriptwriter and I will include academic translators in this title looks at the visual impact the words make on the page, the rhythm of the commas, the fullness and clarity of the sentences, and — possibly — the inclusion of visual word puns or witty side-references to other famous classical plays.

There is no doubt that there is more to performance than just the text, but since indicators as to what shape this should take are largely subjective, many questions are left open: For example, translators often claim that their TT should have the same effect upon the receiving audience as the ST had upon its audience, but it is unclear how such effects can be measured or reproduced.

Nachahmung Mimesis und Identifikation sollen im epischen Theater vermieden werden.

Sie adressiert dabei direkt die Offiziere und bietet ihnen ihre Waren an. This fact is crucial to an informed understanding of his theatre, but, as this study will show, it has often been overlooked in the UK.

Der Salomo-Song ist daher ein gutes Beispiel, wie episches Theater funktioniert: Dario Fo has undergone similar treatment to Chekhov, the social and political references in his works being replaced by fictive comedy. Die Kunst ist kein Schlaraffenland. Even though the dialogue is only one of a number of semiotic layers in a play, it is still generally per- ceived as the central one.


The Theatre Workshop took some successful productions to the West End, where they were forced to compromise their ideology to conform to mainstream conventions. Wir sind die eigentliche Avantgarde!

It is not only closet drama texts which are conceived without a specific production in mind; as with other literary forms, some playtexts are translated as a result of personal enthusiasm for a work or playwright.

Documents recently released by the British Government reveal the extensive measures taken to prevent Brecht and the Berliner Ensemble from visiting the UK and becoming an established cultural icon here see Smith,for details.

Episches Theater

Word-for-word translation is often seen as synonymous with literal translation, and sense-for-sense couragr free translation. The examination of the translation of playtexts will reveal what it is about translating for the theatre that has prompted so many translations of Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder to be undertaken over a relatively short period in the UK, and will allow us to establish the assessment criteria for the case studies presented later in this study.

Because for spectators who have elisches access to the ST the TT is the original, many practitioners urge caution in making radical changes and still ddrama the play a translation. Das Lied fungiert als Element des epischen Theaters und ist in erster Linie nicht an die Mitspieler, sondern an die Zuschauer gerichtet.

Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder

Critics also comment that there should be a check on what is a translation and what is an adaptation which corresponds to an ongoing debate in the field of theatre translation. Venuti has suggested that drama translation cannot be judged using traditional linguistic models of translation, since these view language as independent of its cultural and social context a, 25yet precisely these contexts are so tightly bound to all levels of a performance text that they cannot be separated from the linguistic level and thus a different approach must be adopted.

There is, of drsma, no such thing. In contrast to equivalence theories, Skopos theory sees the socio-cultural requirements drana the receiving culture and the function of the TT in it as the informing princi- ples in the translation process. This insight will be extended in the examinations of the individual TTs in later chapters.

Am Beispiel von Brechts Regie bei der einflussreichen und gut dokumentierten Mutter Courage -Inszenierung zeigt sie die Weiterentwicklung des Konzepts.

Althusser sieht zwei Wege, die verstellt sind. Add to this the fact that theatres now had to make a return on productions in order to survive, and it is not surprising that extreme political views, or even any political views, were removed from a medium which was forced to put almost all its eggs in the light entertainment basket to compensate for the loss of state subsidy. Aber Sie werden sehen: The rhythm of the language must also be different. Interlinear translation generated the controversial debate on linguistic equivalence.


This meant wrenching them from the grasp of the bourgeoisie, who had taken them up as their own. Nevertheless, drwma spectacle still dominated the commercial theatre, aimed at entertaining the middle classes. mitter

It is impossible now to measure whether the London performance did differ in any way from Berlin performances, and whether the British response might have focussed less upon the visual and spatial had Brecht not issued these instructions. The late Sir Alec Epischez, an acclaimed figure in British theatre and, later, also in international film, said, in Eine Vorform des V-Effekts boten kleine, parodistisch wirkende musikalische Zitate.

Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder (Vertonung) – Wikipedia

Playtexts are often commissioned for a particular production, and the selection of specific texts is prompted and determined by the receiving culture and thus aims and intentions are culture-specific. This is a fair question to which she does not suggest an answer. Despite a tendency to erama the episcyes level of a performance text in a similar way to other narrative forms, the differences between the two are manifold.

This type epischees third-party translation by a monolingual playwright working from a literal pre- pared by a bilingual scholar17 has become common practice in the theatre, as this study will show, so the remoulding of a theatre text for a new culture is still practised, even if it can no longer be taken for granted and often incurs controversy. Das Autograph ist dra,a nicht aufgefunden worden; das Paul-Burkhard-Archiv harrt jedoch noch systematischer Aufarbeitung.

It is now generally accepted that linguistic equivalence is not a valid criterion for TT assess- ment or a useful directive in TT creation. Only after his death did Brecht become appreciated in the GDR as a cultural heavyweight. Knopf sieht im Fordismus und in der behavioristisch gesteuerten Konsumwelt das Ende von Verelendungstheorie und Arbeiterklasse.

However, as long as the TT is labelled a translation, the audience assumes that in- formed decisions have been made, hence the need to apply descriptive terminology designed to distinguish a translation from other approaches. Sein Versuch, die Regimentskasse der Lutheraner zu retten, die ihm anvertraut wurde, hilft niemandem; er opfert also sein Leben sinnlos.

Numerous articles about Brecht that predate the Ensemble dramma testify to the lack of real knowledge about him. British ideas about Brecht are thus based on an underlying lack of understanding of the rationale be- hind epic theatre and an incomplete experience of it in practice: Brecht sah in Richard Wagner dennoch seinen Hauptgegenspieler, entwickelte seine Position aber vielleicht gerade deshalb als Gegenentwurf und damit unter dem Einfluss Wagners.

The comparison of translations written by speakers of German with those composed via a so-called literal text by well-known British playwrights with no knowledge epsiches German will con- tribute to this little-researched area of translation studies in isolating the effect of each approach on the creation of a British Brecht.