Hence, knowledge can be verified and affirmed only through science. The Office was dissolved in Kajewski , p. These are politically vital analytical themes, as they show how the Stalinist authorities legitimised their access to power and the implementation of the new political regime in Poland. Skip to main content. Revolutionary romanticism was also defined as part of Polish Socialist Realism, which applied to production literature. Indispensability of the intelligentsia 4. The literary output and fierce debates produced at the time confirm that the Socialist Realist genre was actually read and scrutinised by the engaged intelligentsia. Sovietology defines Stalinism as the authoritarian political, social and economic system constructed under Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union between and , and a phase in the development of international communism Kowalski , p.
Thirdly, this approach allows us to expand the boundaries of established literary analysis to include the political, social, geographical, historical and economic issues of relevance to the socialist transformation of Poland under Stalinism. In short, as the foremost literary critic Ludwik Flaszen put it: Stalinist propagandists claimed that socialism eliminated conflicts between the society and the individual, but in retrospect, they admitted that Stalinism did not allow individuals any freedom Putrament , p. Dorota Tubielewicz Mattsson asserts that the notion was dramatically transformed by Socialist Realism. According to the historian Marcin Zaremba, the combining of selected national elements with Marxism- Leninism aimed to reinforce Socialist Realism and conceal the Stalinisation of Polish culture , p. Accordingly, our main research questions are as follows: See also Prokop , p. Dorota Tubielewicz Mattsson, who sees Polish Socialist Realism as a tool of power, explains that in practice that meant that production novels did not depict the social world as known and experienced See e.
Section one provides background information about the book.
Representation can be defined as the construction of original sources through texts and images. This event weighted heavily on Russo-Polish cz2. No 16 Is Producing — the foundation stone of Stalinism 4. The mass-employment of a female workforce encouraged by the Stalinist authorities produced dissent, which made them reinstate men as an agent in production and women as an agent in domestic labour during de-Stalinisation Fidelispp.
It concerns itself with the sociological relevance of literary works, which are read for themes of interest to social history. This approach enables us to investigate production literature as a politically determined process, and this way add to existing literary analysis, which has explored the genre as a Socialist Realist literary model.
In what follows, we examine the relevant mechanisms and chronology of the Stalinisation of the field of literature under the slogan of building socialism.
Codifying the Socialist Realist canon, Stalinism approved of Realism as the dominant convention. For discussion of the hard variant, see Chung, In the Party Spirit. Polish Socialist Realism This section discusses the obligatory method of literary composition of Socialist Realism which was grafted onto Poland from the USSR in order to facilitate the furtherance dyplomaha Stalinist socialism in Poland. This process shows in interrelations between the politicisation of production novels and their response to it in the form of attempted social engineering.
At the same time, the political ferment within cultural circles increased, and climaxed between and Undeniably, the ryplomata political system guaranteed access to education ffilm advancement to social groups that had been previously socially underprivileged Ustawa a, p. This promulgation accelerated the Stalinisation of the field of Polish literature, which, in turn, yielded production literature.
Kazimierz Antoni Wodzicki – Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia
With one exception, the Catholic writer Jerzy Turowiczdelegates onoine approved the proclamation. Reinventing literature as a propagandist tool 4.
In search of the enemy 6. Some of the themes that ran through the preceding traditions can also be found in production literature.
Tomasik asserts that the extraliterary opinions of authors can be traced to speeches or final parts of texts, which gives the third-person narration specific closures that clearly referred to extra-fictional political intertext.
Its prime political objective was to discredit the Second Republic of Poland. Next, we examine how the ambiguity and incoherence dyplomataa the Socialist Realist conglomerate influenced the organisation of production novels. None of us [the Party] intends to use methods of the Inquisition, no one will disturb experiments, […] but we want to conquer […] the world of the great art for Socialist Realism, and we will not let any loony experimenters cz2 it.
Inthe Six-Year-Plan significantly increased their employment in order to stimulate the development of the socialist economy and to accelerate industrialisation. Socialist versus traditional relationships 6.
This is because the world is not heterogeneous and organised into disciplinary, connected components; it is pluralistic, indeterminate, ephemeral and fragmented Usherp. Discourse analysis involves not only research inline, methods or approaches, but also the assumptions that are made and need to be explained.
The literary representation of the Stalinist vision of socialism and socialist society manifests dyplomqta in the imprint Stalinism left on Polish production literature, which is conceptualised here as the intermingling of selected political and social processes.
Cultural ferment brought change. Dyllomata sociology of literature,9 which is a diverse area of study, is primarily concerned with the social production of literature and its social significance and repercussions, which, in the case of Polish production literature happens to be dominated by Stalinist politics.
Embedded within a simple black and white matrix of those for and against communism, Socialist Realist characters seek to add credibility to Stalinist political dyplomaata. Documentary evidence is a rich source of analytical data Punchp. Regardless of these slight discrepancies, both scholars point toas the year Stalinism commenced. The historian Barbara Otwinowska also questions it, as introduced by Marxist historiography. This study combines both approaches by examining the Stalinist literary representation of women in relation to the relevant Stalinist policies and their practical implementation.
The second phase from to was rich in novels with features fundamental to the genre. Hence, biographical data is important insofar as it provides information about a phase of Stalinism and the novel.
Kazimierz Antoni Wodzicki
Production novels intimate that they show the reality of socialism, whereas they obey the Socialist Realist rule that socialism should be presented as if it already existed. The study conceptualises the novels as a product of these interactions. The literary historian Marian Kisiel asserts that whilst filtering the past, Interwar Literature links it with contemporary literary tradition b, pp. The zealous Party writer Jerzy Andrzejewski claimed that the prime objective of Polish literature was to become socialist literaturep.
Polish Stalinist propaganda reduced production literature to an instrument of propaganda and agitation possessing no artistic value. Discourse analysis To examine the processes that underlay the interplay between Stalinist politics and literature between anda macroscopic perspective of discourse analysis is employed in this study.
Interestingly, engineers were also well dressed and good-looking.