More likely they were purchased slaves, often Christians, who could help their masters earn money with their performances. These hand-puppets had carved heads, hands and feet, boasted painted features and handsewn costumes. Al-Yusuf was a teenager when she met Aziz Bid. The goal of this entire series has been to open doors into other cultures for those interested in the theatre. Some words may be useful here about where and when dance works are seen in the Arab world. Saleh has actually decried the intrusion of these new western elements, urging Egyptian choreographers to go back to their roots and to steep themselves in their own traditions. Another genre is that of solo improvised dance, the most widespread dance type in the Arab world.

Belly-dance, versions of which were seen during the various world fairs of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Europe and the United States, titillated audiences of that period who were in search of the exotic. This event is generally rehearsed and is usually intended for repetition over a period of time. Theatre Space and Architecture: Examinations of standard dictionaries—including the Oxford English Dictionary—were of even less help. Sometimes linked with the Theatre for Young Audiences section but most often recognized on its own, puppet theatre is at once one of the oldest of the popular theatrical arts and, where it has been rediscovered by contemporary theatrical practitioners, one of the most avant-garde. Along with specialized individual volumes, these were very useful but, because of their specificity or, in some cases, their purely academic approach, they were not always useful to theatre professionals. This led to often chaotic and even rude behaviour in the theatres and eventually a list of regulations governing such behaviour was drawn up by directors. The subsequent influence of ballet, and the importance accorded it as a cultural icon by various Middle Eastern governments, ultimately led to the founding of state companies in several other Arab countries using western theatrical dance techniques and sometimes telling stories through dance.

In fact, with newfound linguistic freedom, the theatre, like the rest of the arts, enjoyed a golden per iod in the s. One must acknowledge the fact though that belly-dance performances are easily accessible to tourists in Cairo and other large Middle Eastern cities. One of the most important is Assia Djebar, an Algerian.

This project would not have survived without the help of the Canadian Centre of the ITI especially Curtis Barlow in the early years of the project and hxyati various members of the Canadian-based Board of Directors who worked to find funds to realize this work.

Nearly a century later, Hannibal, the Carthaginian admiral, sailed westward from Carthage present-day Tunisia with a fleet of sixty ships carrying thirty-thousand men and women.

Instead haayti just naming names, hahati have asked them to choose a small number of representative designers and discuss their individual work.


In cases where the answers come down firmly on the side of music or dance, we have proposed not including the material in WECT since it might more appropriately be included in a music or dance encyclopedia. The opinions expressed in the various articles are those of the authors themselves and do not necessarily reflect the point of view of the sponsoring organizations.

Society knew them only as slaves with veils covering their faces.

Hussein Riad – IMDb

Palestine, it should be noted, which has a major article in this volume and whose problems of identity are discussed as well in several national articles, is probably most closely linked to what is called here the Middle East traditions. The fact is that there are many Muslims who are not Arab at all. It is this unity that the present volume has sought to acknowledge, document and understand.

By going to specific pages, the reader will then be able to follow the influence and development of particular figures or groups both within their own countries, within regions and ultimately in the world. Neither of these explanations, though, is completely satisfactory.

For this reason the dancers generally have only one partner for life, often a brother or close cousin. Even when some information did exist, the sources were too often out-of-date or existed only in a language not widely spoken.

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But because it dealt with personal issues, linguistic questions arose immediately. Dance Research Annual 10 My earlier study had indicated only that the ancestors of the Swahili speakers of this area were traders and warriors from Tanzania.

Those bayati represented the ghaltah who by definition were always corrupt spoke Fusha. Translated by Peter Kingsley. Through the years, less ambitious attempts were made. What can I expect? In she starred in her first silent movie, Catastrophe Atop the Pyramid.

Each performance is considered fresh, unique and individual. They wear bright silk costumes rather than tribal clothing and form human pyramids, balance trays on their heads and execute a gayati of entertaining and difficult feats, employing both gymnastic and dance figures in their well-rehearsed routines designed to attract coins from the public. Without her faith and goodwill, WECT might well have foundered.

Indeed, Fusha is learned only in school. By contrast the seif wa tirs sword and shield performance, found in some of the mountain villages of Lebanon, which has parallels to the performances of the more well-known sword and shield dance of Bursa Turkey is a form of true combat, and the dancers can receive wounds in the heat of performance.

Is an Arab of necessity a Muslim? The language issue soon took on nationalistic dimensions. The next three would be observed, more quietly but no less piously, in smaller groups or in privacy before the group evening worship just eoisode dusk.


Schechner was cautioning us against putting together a volume which was really from several geographical regions and which seemed to be based on religion more than anything else.

Wayne University Press, In some of the dances, the performers also carry and play percussion instruments during the dance. Produced with great refinement, they were as thin as glass with strong outlines, many perforations and splendidly ornamented.

Marshall Pollock Rodolfo A. In one scene, showing how remote and insensitive to the sufferings of the people around them the Fusha speakers were, the speech of the corrupt be- gins to take on an ever more ethereal Fusha until by the end they are speaking a type of non-sense. Second, this is the dance form ghalfat to all—men and women—in urban and some rural settings.

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Starting from the thirteenth century the art of the episide play spread across the Arabian peninsula and into North Africa.

It is a situation that is ironically reminiscent of earlier performance periods in the Arab world. In such contexts investigators have limited access to these milieux which are exclusively attended by participants of the opposite sex. A similar group, under the same title but with different artists, toured to rave reviews in By including a separate section in these articles, WECT intends to acknowledge the importance of this very special area of contemporary theatre life.

992 Journal of Arabic Literature 16 My administrator and manag ing editor Catherine Matzig maintained the operations of our international editorial office in Toronto nobly and with continuous good humour, being forced to deal with me almost exclusively through the miracle of electronic mail. Anthony Shay Pomona College Claremont, California Notes 1 The title refers to the title of an important historical treatise in which dance is mentioned Shiloah These shows were always performed during Ramadan and documentation exists indicating that they were sometimes presented in harems.

To write in colloquial Arabic, on the other hand, was also not totally satisfactory because its expressions dated quickly, tended to be used for cheap laughs and was by definition not as widely understood. In this dance the participants dance in lines or semicircles and generally hold hands in a variety of ways, or hold one another by the shoulders. As for eepisode plays, he felt that something else was necessary because Fusha simply did not appeal to contemporary audiences in the theatre specifically because it was resistant to change.