Many of these intellectuals had lived in the Netherlands as students. Linguistic research has shown that Malagasy is genetically closest to the South-East Barito languages, and a basic acceptance of this conclusion seems to me a sine qua non for fruitful further research into the history of Malagasy. He has his own free interpretation of early Southeast Asian history, and fills out the margins of uncertainty left by C;oedes Despite the fact that Ambonese Malay had been spoken in parts of Central Maluku for approximately years it is clear that this language was known to few community members. And a better understanding of the development of modern Indonesian seen as a process of koineisation may prove to be stimulating for the study of other, and older, varieties of Malay. But it is also possible that the ethnic Javanese were the dominant group among the Indonesians in Sri Lanka, and that as a result the whole group was referred to as ‘Javanese’. Oceania, the Moluccas, Sulawesi and western Indonesia.

Idenburg, then Director of Education and Religion, wrote on 24 September to the Governor-General, in connection with the planned foundation of a Faculty of Arts, that at that time there was complete uncertainty about the development of the Malay language: In this case ‘the region’ means primarily the areas outside Java and Madura. All dialects derive from Common Paleo-Malagasy. The other set are norms of usage which are not yet formally codified and which are used by, among others, the mass media and young writers. Volkslectuur, with a highly commendable energy, is aiming at the development of a sort of cultural Malay, that on the one hand has to remain firmly embedded in the basic structure of the language, and on the other hand adapts itself to the needs of the modem age and offers opportunities for adopting the new developments in the language. For the first circle, relatives and friends, Kats had his. O’Grady University of Victoria, B. Notwithstanding my criticisms, I consider Mahdi’s book a major contribution to Austronesian and Malagasy comparative linguistics.

It was not unusual for these soldiers to bring their wives along when they embarked for Sri Lanka.

The fifth and sixthnot mentioned by Poeze editions are both mlam. In this case ‘the region’ means primarily the areas outside Java and Madura. Zain, were from the Minangkabau. When other sources or sources for other dialects are used, this is indicated in the text. This is one of several factors which are relevant in the search for explanations about the process of language shift EDUCATION The principal reason to which comm unity members ascribe the decision to remain near the coast was concern for their children’s education.

If a variety typically symbolises social identity, as is normally the case with local dialects or other in-group speech, it tukagn to exclude outsiders by being ‘intolerant’: Language shift has been proceeding in Lohiatala for approximately 65 years and use of Alune decreases markedly with each generation.


I 4 Your dog is dead. Reading Simon’s book is made more difficult by the fact th at it has been very poorly edited. Dunia Melayu Occasional Paper 2.

I do not have any explicit answer to the question posed by A. On the ot her hand, the in habitants of the East Barito area apparently lacked these characteristics, or at least, they lac k them now, and there is no trace or indication of a great South-East Ba rito expans ion or mar it ime past.

In the following pages I use linguistic data on SLM to complement Hussainmiya’s findings, and to correct some of his conclusions. The texts are arranged according to three main types of social setting: Scholars from four Southeast Asian and ten European countries as well as from Australia met under the general conference topic ‘The Daerah, Past and Present’.

Jm, lb1 yukang jaya cow sampi go pi, p ggi, piggi crow gagak go down tilru. However, in any context of1angua. O’Grady University of Victoria, B. In opposition to Abstandsprachen Kloss From Dutch documents it appears that the Indonesian aristocrats belonging to this category were mainly from Java, but they also came from Bacan, Sumatra, Macassar, Tidore and Timor. The fourth circle, ‘mixed Malay’, includes rather stable social dialects or even vernaculars which developed among groups for whom Malay as a second language became their first language, within a complicated hahi of both diglossia and bilingualism.

For the sociolinguist there is still the task of selecting the criteria that determine whether or not a given text in a given period belongs to the diasystem of ‘general’ Malay.

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But it is not easy to determine the exact position of SLM vis-a. What are the roots of Malagasy? The Malagasy changes in wordfinal position are not shared by other South-East Barito languages. It may be derived from -kdn, a transitivising suffix found in nonstandard forms of Malay and Javanese.

This village was chosen as it was the nearest village to the south and there had been some previous contact with Lohiatala in the form of trade. For practical ttukang – no educational tools were available except those for teaching Riau Malay – and because the more modern language had “not yet been professionally studied” “nog geen beoefenaars heeft gevonden ”Schrieke advised maintaining the Riau Malay: In the case of the present volume, the editor’s tasks have in general been limited to those of referee and editorial adviser.

There is also a second, revised edition of some volumes. ADELAAR Some of the earliest political exiles came from the Moluccas and the Lesser Sunda Islands, but from on, tukwng Javanese princes were exiled to Sri Lanka as a result of their involvement in the wars of succession which began in the late 17th century.

I confine myself to mentioning, in the final part of this essay, a recent study by Jeff Siegel on koineisation that seems to me highly relevant for students of Indonesian. If these requirements are not met, further research will become pointless.


McKaughan University of Hawaii P. There must have been buubr Malay settlements in Sri Lanka. Malay loanwords in Malagasy include a fair number of maritime terms. The Indian Ocean in antiquity.

As suc h, they may have created a nuclear community, or rather, severa l nuclear commun it ies, whic h were ab le gradua lly to assimilate tumang numbers of individuals fro m other Indones ian and East African ethnic groups.

The sentences were designed to elicit a range of fifteen syntactic structures.

His proposal of an East Austronesian substratum is a rather daring hypothesis based on his general idea of East Austronesian wanderings in a south-westerly direction. Other Malay dialects have an ‘SVO’ construction.

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Several of the revised editions are not found in the collections and catalogues available in Indonesia and The Netherlands. It appeared in From the second edi tion on Kats the non-standard Malay texts are included, with changes in the third edition and again in the fourth edition ADELAAR breath napas far jau breathe napas ambej fat, grease gummuk brother older kaka father bapa younger age father’s brother bum tr.

SLM pagi paddy paggi ati heart ati, atti steps, stairs future marker SLM also has geminated versus simple consonants see the above examplesbut whether gemination is phonemic or not is problematic.

Mahdi treats these issues in the main part of his book; in a supplement, he enlarge s upon various re lated cultural-historical and methodological questions. I then conclude the article with a new hypothesis regarding the sociohistorical conditions under which the Malagasy language and people came into being.

During this period the village can be characterised as insular and basically monolingual. In the 3rd century AD, according to Simon, the Wejus established relations with the East African coast, and in the four centuries to follow, some of them went over to East Africa.

In the Outer Islands as a whole there was no dominating vernacular such as.

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ADELAAR The provisional and impressionistic character of Mahdi’s classification is not really warranted in view of the number of already existing often better argued classifications and in view of the available language data that he could have used to check some of his rather unusual subgroupings. Simon seems to have had difficultie s in integrating the great mass of material involved in his study.

Conversion to Christianity was rapid. This development took place on Javanese soil, in surroundings where Javanese Malay was abundantly present in everyday speech, in the press and in the official jargon.